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By Aaron D. Rubin

With a written background of approximately 5 thousand years, the Semitic languages contain one of many international s earliest attested and longest attested households. renowned family members comprise Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, Amharic, and Akkadian. This quantity offers an summary of this crucial language kin, together with either historical and smooth languages. After a quick advent to the background of the relations and its inner class, next chapters hide subject matters in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon.Each bankruptcy describes positive aspects which are attribute of the Semitic language relatives as a complete, in addition to many of the extra amazing advancements that happen within the person languages. this offers either a typological evaluate and an outline of extra exact good points. The chapters comprise considerable examples from quite a few languages. the entire examples comprise morpheme by means of morpheme glosses, in addition to translations, which assist in making those examples transparent and available even to these no longer accustomed to a given language. Concluding the publication is an in depth advisor to extra analyzing, which directs the reader to an important reference instruments and secondary literature, and an updated bibliography.This short creation features a wealthy number of facts, and covers subject matters now not regularly present in brief sketches corresponding to this. The readability of presentation makes it helpful not just to these within the box of Semitic linguistics, but additionally to the final linguist or language fanatic who needs to profit anything approximately this crucial language relations.

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In many cases, the source of bor­ rowing has been another Semitic language. Akkadian was widely used throughout the Near East for much of the second millennium BCE, and because of this, we find a number of Ak­ kadian loans in Biblical Hebrew (Mankowski 2000) and various dialects of Aramaic (Kaufman 1974). Aramaic itself was also long a dominant language in the region, and numerous Aramaic borrowings or calques are found in Arabic (Retso 2006), all pe­ riods of Hebrew (M. Wagner 1 966; Kutscher 1982), and else­ where.

BIBUOGRAPHY 87 Ciancaglini, Claudia A. 2008. Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. Wies­ baden: Ludwig Reichert. Coffin, Edna Amir, and Shmuel Bolozky. 2005. A Reference Grammar of Modem Hebrew. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer­ sity Press. Cohen, David. [1984] 2003. La phrase nominale et l'evolution du systeme verbal en semitique: Etudes de syntaxe historique. Leu­ ven: Peeters. Cohen, David, Fran�ois Bron, and Antoine Lonnet. 1994-.

Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. 2d edn. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. -- -_. -- -- BIBUOGRAPHY 87 Ciancaglini, Claudia A. 2008. Iranian Loanwords in Syriac. Wies­ baden: Ludwig Reichert. Coffin, Edna Amir, and Shmuel Bolozky. 2005. A Reference Grammar of Modem Hebrew. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer­ sity Press. Cohen, David. [1984] 2003. La phrase nominale et l'evolution du systeme verbal en semitique: Etudes de syntaxe historique. Leu­ ven: Peeters. Cohen, David, Fran�ois Bron, and Antoine Lonnet.

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