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By A. Wolf, F. Dannemann, A. Armitage, Douglas McKie

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When the prism is drawn out again there is a corresponding fall in the level o f the fluid. The product o f the weight multiplied by the velocity o f the immersed body must, if equilibrium is to be maintained, be equal to the product of the weight and velocity of the raised mass o f fluid, and in this way the Principle o f Virtual Velocities finds an applica­ tion in this case. Galilei also extended the application o f this principle to the relations o f fluids in intercommunicating pipes, which seemed to him to be analogous to the preceding case.

His successors. 55 partly under the stimulus o f his visions, saw his dreams come true. The scientific academies came into being in response to the new needs of the new age. It was in these societies that modern science found the opportunities and the encouragement which were denied to it at the Universities, not only in the seventeenth century, but for a long time afterwards. T h e A ccad em ia d e l C imento The Academy of Experiments was founded in Florence in 1657. Its moving spirits were two of Galilei’s most distinguished disciples, Viviani and Torricelli.

A board about twelve yards long was grooved. The groove, about half an inch wide, was made straight and smooth, and was covered with very smooth parchment. The board was then raised at one end to various heights. A smooth ball, made of polished brass, was then allowed to roll down the whole length of the groove, and the time taken to cover the whole distance was noted. The same ball was next allowed to run down a quarter of the whole distance, and the time taken was similarly noted. It was found that the time taken to cover a quarter o f the distance was half o f that taken for the whole distance, and the general result o f numerous repetitions o f the experiment was that the distances were proportional, for any given value of the inclina­ tion, to the squares o f the times required to traverse them.

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