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By Edmund T. Whittaker

The aim of this quantity is to explain the revolution in physics which came about within the first sector of the 20 th century, and which incorporated the discoveries of precise Relativity, the older Quantum thought, normal Relativity, Matrix Mechanics and Wave Mechanics.

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Extra resources for A history of theories of ether and electricity. The classical theories

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Thus, though in one sense the formula of the end-in-view is the promotion of the general welfare, when its full character is made explicit, the motive is personal in its point of view, the search for one's own happiness. IX 51. But what is the alternative? It is to find in the members of the moral community a mode of motivation which is not impersonal in the Platonic sense - a subordinate impersonal moment in a personal satisfaction sought for as such - but is, rather, directly impersonal, or, better, interpersonal, as directly oriented toward the welfare of the community.

Furthermore, he has given the problem its clearest, its most (so to speak) undiluted formulation by relating the two questions: (1) (2) What ought one to do, all things considered as they really are? What would we be moved to do, all things considered as they really are? 47. But whereas the art of the citizen (which is concerned to discover the principles of right action) views the welfare of the City from an impersonal point of view - that of a craftsman qua craftsman, Plato assumes that an account of what a person would be moved to do, all things considered as they really are, essentially involves a personal point of view.

Or that it is a system of representeds? And, in any case, what would the claim amount to? " Does Kant think of nature as a system of mental acts? At one level the answer is clearly No. For, although nature does include representings - thus, at least, the sensory representings that are states of the empirical self - its primary constituents are material things and events, and Kant would agree with the Cartesians that the idea that a material event could be a representing, or, equivalently, that a mental act could have shape and size, is absurd.

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