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By Karin C. Ryding

A Reference Grammar of recent commonplace Arabic is a accomplished instruction manual at the constitution of Arabic. conserving technical terminology to a minimal, it presents an in depth but obtainable evaluate of recent regular Arabic during which the fundamental elements of its phonology, morphology and syntax could be conveniently seemed up and understood. followed by way of huge carefully-chosen examples, it is going to end up valuable as a pragmatic advisor for aiding students' textbooks, lecture room paintings or self-study, and also will be an invaluable source for students and pros wishing to improve an figuring out of the foremost good points of the language. Grammar notes are numbered for ease of reference, and a piece is integrated on easy methods to use an Arabic dictionary, in addition to precious glossaries of Arabic and English linguistic phrases and an invaluable bibliography. basically based and systematically organised, this publication is decided to turn into the traditional advisor to the grammar of latest Arabic.

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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic (Reference Grammars)

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In ³½³ïáõÃÛáõÝ azatut’yun [czctuthjun] “freedom”. k. Palatalisation of Lateral Approximant15 The Russian influence has also lead to a palatalisation of the alveolar lateral l preceding consonants, in the pronunciation of Russian loans in colloquial Armenian, such as ³ÉµáÙ albom [cljbfm] “album”, í³Éë vals [vcljs] “waltz”, ³ÉÙ³Ý³Ë almanax [cljmcncó] “almanac”, µáÉß»íÇÏ bolšewik [boljw7vik] “Bolshevik”, ÏáõÉïáõñ³ kultura [kuljtunc] “culture” etc. l. “Pseudo-vowel Reduction” in Russian Loans Loan words and personal names from Russian are also often pronounced with “Russian-like reduced vowels” in colloquial Armenian (but with “Armenian” stress on last syllable), as in [pcmidfn] < åáÙǹáñ pomidor “tomato”; [kfnf7t] < ÏáÝý»ï konfet “sweet, candy”; [Bcnis] < ´áñÇë Boris; [Vikt6n] < ìÇÏïáñ Viktor etc.

It follows an alveolar nasal [n] in the following words (and their derivations and compounds) ³Ý¹³Ù andam [cnthcm] “member”, ËݹÇñ xndir [ó6nthin] “problem”, ϻݹ³ÝÇ kendani [k7nthcni] “alive; animal”. g. Áݹ³ÑÝáõñ ěndhanur [6nthhcnun] “general”, Áݹ³Ù»ÝÁ ěndameně [6nthcm7n6] “in all, total”, ÁݹáõÝ»É ěndunel [6nthun7l] “to accept” and the name 껹ñ³Ï Sedrak [S7thnck]. g. in ³¹³Ù³Ý¹ adamand [cdcmcnd] “diamond”, ³í³Ý¹ avand [cvcnd] “deposit, investment”, Ãáõݹ t’und [thund] “strong”, ÃÇݹ t’ind [thind] “noise, sound” etc.

2006) Ilham Aliew-i xosk’-ov ir erkr-i Ilham Aliew-dat word-inst his country-dat hamberut’yun-n spa˚r-v-um ē. [……hcmph7nuthjun-nç6 s-pcrvum ] patience-nom-the runout-antic- ptcp. pres. ” . Please note that in colloquial, almost dialectal Armenian the schwa is also inserted between sibilant and plosive. There is one “cultural” word in Eastern Armenian, which conventionally uses this rather unusual pronunciation, the word ëå³ë spas [s6pcs] “yoghurt-soup”. g. [6spcs] or [spcs] as being typical for speakers without “real Eastern Armenian background”.

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