By Thomas E. Quantrille
[Main textual content] -- Appendix B: faster (PDC) Prolog software for EXSEP
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And E. Shapiro, The Art of Prolog, pp. 1-27, ΜΓΓ Press, Cambridge, M A (1986). Walker, Adrian, Editor, Knowledge Systems and Prolog, pp. 25-35, Addison-Wesley, Reading, M A (1987). 1 Data Representation and Syntax A. Constants B. Variables C. Simple and Structured Objects D. 2 Matching A. Instantiation of Variables B . Requirements for a Match C. Equality Exercises 2 3 Declarative and Procedural Nature of Prolog A. Understanding Declarative and Procedural Languages B . Ordering of Clauses: the Danger of Infinite Loops C.
2 . 5 Chapter Summary • Data objects in Prolog can be atoms, numbers structured objects (also known as structures). , integers and real numbers), variables, or 54 2. A More In-Depth View • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Atoms and numbers are constants. Constants and variables are simple objects. Structures in Prolog are constructed by use of a functor with corresponding components. The components can be any Prolog data objects, including atoms, numbers, variables, or other structures. Functors are related to mathematical functions in that they map objects in a specific way.
The next goal is u p s t r e a m (Z, g ) . However, since variable Ζ is instantiated to atom c, the goal is upstream ( c , g ) . Step 8: Prolog again does its top-down scan, and matches the u p s t r e a m ( c , g ) with the head of the first u p s t r e a m clause. This second application of the u p s t r e a m rule is completely independent of the first application. W e use X' and Y' to show that they are variables different from X and Y: f upstream (Χ' ,Υ') :feeds_into (Χ',Υ'), Note that variable X' is instantiated to c and Y' to g.