By Christine McKinnon
This booklet argues that the query posed through advantage theories, particularly, "what type of individual may still I be?" offers a extra promising method of ethical questions than do both deontological or consequentialist ethical theories the place the worry is with what activities are morally required or permissible. It does so either by means of arguing that there are less attackable theoretical foundations for advantage theories, and via persuasively suggesting the prevalence of advantage theories over deontological and consquentialist theories at the query of explaining morally undesirable habit. advantage theories can provide a richer account by means of beautiful to the categories of tendencies that be sure undesirable offerings look beautiful. This richer account additionally exposes one other good thing about advantage theories: they supply the simplest forms of motivations for brokers to turn into greater folks.
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It is implausible that there are cases where the best one can do is get completely lucky. Denying the Right Reasons Ability Condition thus has at least two major costs. First, one has to deny that one is always able to perform the action one ought to perform in a non-accidental way. Second, one has to deny that one is always able to do what one is obligated to do in a way that is creditworthy. It is tempting for the objectivist to reply to these arguments by again appealing to the fact that the deontic comes apart from the hypological.
In fact, his wife is cheating on him. Surprised Andy Andy knows that his wife has always been an extremely loyal person. However, much to his surprise, he learns that she is cheating on him—her best friend tells him, he finds some love letters, and he catches his wife with her lover. He thus files for divorce. Cf. Hyman (2006), Hornsby (2008), Gibbons (2013). 19 Acting for the Right Reasons, Abilities, and Obligation 39 In both cases, Andy reasons from a belief that his wife is cheating on him to the act of filing for divorce.
They are practical reasons, not epistemic ones. I suggest that this argument is not quite right. ‘Epistemic’ rationality and justification for moral uliefs should relate to exercised moral understanding, since that is the ‘aim’ of those states. So it can be perfectly rational to form moral judgements without trusting the testimony and judgements of others, because making up your own mind is the only way to exercise your moral understanding. ‘Epistemology’ for moral uliefs with regard to moral testimony and related matters (including moral disagreement) is going to look rather different from the standard epistemology for (narrow) belief.