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The realm round the Baltic Sea has for millennia been a meeting-place for individuals of alternative origins. one of the circum-Baltic languages, we discover 3 significant branches of Indo-European — Baltic, Germanic, and Slavic, the Baltic-Finnic languages from the Uralic phylum and a number of other others. The circum-Baltic region is a perfect position to check areal and make contact with phenomena in languages.

The current set of 2 volumes examine the circum-Baltic languages from a typological, areal and old point of view, attempting to relate the elaborate styles of similarities and dissimilarities to the societal history. In quantity I, surveys of dialect parts and language teams endure witness to the sizeable linguistic variety within the zone with certain consciousness to much less famous languages and language kinds and their contacts.

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Extra info for Circum-Baltic Languages, Volume 1: Past and Present (Studies in Language Companion Series)

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E. g. sg) Some of the central dialects (and, theoretically, the standard language as well, see below), have a system of three tones. a. The falling tone (krı¯toša¯ intona¯cija, German fallender Ton). The initial part of the vocalic segment is pronounced with greater intensity and a higher pitch; both intensity and pitch decrease toward the end of the vocalic segment. b. The drawn tone (stiepta¯ intona¯cija, German Dehnton) shows no decrease in either intensity (expiratory strength) or pitch toward the end of the articulation of the vocalic segment: both are maintained at the same level.

1993. Latviešu valodas v˜esturiska¯ fone¯tika. Rı¯ga. Some of the examples from Latvian dialects have been taken from the card files of the Latvian Language Institute, Latvian Academy of Sciences, Riga. 1 Number of speakers Lithuanian is now spoken by about 3,500,000 people in Lithuania and about 600,000 people spread over a number of other countries. Outside Lithuania, autochthonous Lithuanian populations can be found in north-eastern Poland near the Lithuanian border and in a few villages in Belarus.

3 In the Baltic languages the reflexive pronoun has come to be integrated into the verb form. Basically, it is now affixed to it (as is the case in east Slavonic). If the verb contains a prefix, however, the reflexive marker is inserted between this prefix and the lexical verb stem, which is a relic of the original mobility of the reflexive pronoun. Lithuanian still shows this state of affairs: baigend baigend papref papref -e˙pret -e˙pret baigend sirefl -Ø 3 -Ø 3 -e˙pret baigend -si refl -Ø 3 -e˙pret -Ø 3 The majority of the central dialects of Latvian (and the standard language) have generalized a single pattern, with the reflexive marker affixed at the end, after the personal endings; but the pattern with infixed reflexive marker can be shown to The Latvian language and its dialects have been general in Latvian as well.

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