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By Crowson R.A.

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We can now formulate the four common methodological features as follows (similarly in Weingartner 1978, sec. 1–7). M1: M2: M3: M4: Science searches for hypotheses which are as general and as content-rich as possible, and recorded in a scientific language. g. the historical sciences) they also include hypothetical singular sentences. Science searches for actual observation sentences, as many as possible (and as relevant as possible), which reflect the results of observations, experiments or measurements.

Such systems of models Introduction: Where do we Stand? • 13 are also called structures: hence the name “structuralist” philosophy of science. Stegmüller (1976, 105) envisions this step as a radical upheaval. Later he is more modest and argues for the transition from logical to set-theoretical formalization methods on “pragmatic and psychological reasons” concerning the simplicity of formal reconstructions (1979b, 65). However, since set-theoretical models are also characterized by statements, namely by statements in the language of set theory, there exist straightforward possibilities of translation between the theory representations in the “statement view” and the “non-statement view” (see sec.

In sec. 4 we explained that since the 19th century the traditional humanities were increasingly understood as a counterpart or even an opposition to the natural sciences. The term humanities and social sciences was coined in the 1960s and intended to serve as a modernized counterpart to the natural sciences. Whether this terminological group covers only groups 3 and 4, or also groups 5 and 6, was not fixed. In the last two decades, the new terminological group of the cultural sciences was formed, in part as a reaction to contemporary tendencies in psychology and social sciences to increasingly use methods of natural sciences.

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